List of Arabic Terms

adab

a habit, a practical norm of conduct, implies courtesy

adat (pl of adah)

customs, customary law, local norms and traditions working in the Muslims life alongside the Shariah

ahl al-hadith

members of a Muslim sect who profess the same views as the early Muslims and are not bound by the four Sunni legal schools; or the partisans of traditions as opposed to ahl ar-ray

ahl al-Quran

people of the Quran

aid al-qurban

the sacrificial festival during the yearly pilgrimage

akhund

a title given to scholars, schoolmaster or tutor

alam

world

alim (pl = ulama)

knowledgeable person, specialist in traditional elements of law

amal

action or that which is practised

amir/emir

commander, prince, governor

awlads

sons, children, used in Central Asia for extended family

awliya

minor saints

ayat (pl of ayah)

individual verses of the Quran

barakah

(divine) blessing

Bayt el-Mal

the fiscus or treasury of the Muslim state

bidah

innovations in Islam

Dar el-Harb

foreign territory where the Muslim law is not in force, grounds for missionary war, jihad

Dar el-Islam

the whole territory under which the law of Islam prevails

dhikr (zikr)

remembering God, reciting the names of God, the tireless repetition of an aculatory litany, a ligios service common to all the mystical fraternities

faqih

Muslim jurist, specialist in religious law, lawyer

fard

part of prayer, a line of verse taken in isolation

fatwa

an opinion on a point of law

fiqh

norms, knowledge, understanding, intelligence, knowledge of Muslim law and norms

firqah

division, section, in Central Asia also political party

hadith

an account of what the Prophet said or did, or his tacit approval of something said or done in his presence

hajj

the pilgrimage to Mecca

hakim

ruler, sage

halqa

circle, cell, link

hizb

political party

ijma

consensus of religious authorities/jurists, a unanimous agreement at a given time

ijtihad

the interpretation of the Quran and the hadith, the use of individual reasoning in a case or ruling of law

ikhwan

brothers

imam

leader of the official prayer rituals

al-iqrar bi-l-lisan

affirmation, recognition of rights, acknowledgement (in law) + oral message

ishan

a leader or guide in mysticism

istihsan

an arbitrary personal opinion

jahiliyyah

the state of affairs in Arabia before Islam; paganism, ignorance

jamaat (pl of jamaa)

the communities of believers

jihad

an effort directed towards a determined objective; a military action to expand/defend Islam

juz

a part, particle, cannot be divided further

kafir

unbeliever, infidel

karamah

miracle making, a marvel wrought by a saint

kalam

scholastic theology

khatib

the spokesman of the tribe

khoja (qoja)

historically the title of prominent people in the Naqshbandiyyah, but in some areas of Central Asia also denoting an ethnic belonging

kufr

unbelief

madhhab

there are four schools (madhhab) in orthodox Islam: Hanafite, Malikite, Shafiite, Hanbalite

madrasah

a school that is both an institute and a place of learning where the Islamic sciences are taught higher Islamic education

mahad

institute

mahallah

small neighbourhood community grouped around its mosque

majlis

council, parliament

manawiy

spiritual, spiritual stage, constant spiritual association

maktab

Islamic traditional school, also kuttab

marasim

official court ceremonies

mawlud

celebration of the birth of a person, especially the Prophet

mazar/mizar

smaller shrine, tomb (ziyaratgah)

muaskar

army

mudarris

teacher at a madrasah

muezzin

the man who calls the prayer

mufti

a person who gives an opinion on a point of law (fatwa), or is engaged in that profession

muhtasib

the person entrusted to supervise the duty of every Muslim to promote good and forbid evil amongst the surroundings

mujahed (mujahid)

a fighter for the faith, wages war against unbelievers

mujtahid

a person who may interpret Shariah by the use of ijtihad

mullah

part of the ulama clergy; a title of profession, indicates he has acquired the first instance of religious education

mumin (pl = muminu)

believer, faithful

murid

disciple or pupil, novice, in mysticism

murshid

guide, pir, spiritual director in mysticism

mushrif

supervisor

mutaalim

educated

nadhr

offering, a vow to do something in return for a wish fulfilled (by Allah)

naib

deputy heads of local bodies

nikah

marriage

nizam

organization

pir

guide (murshid)

qazi (Ar. qadi)

judge

qiyas

judicial reasoning by analogy in law; to define a rule which has not been the object of an explicit formulation

raf al-yadayn

lift the hands

Ramadan

the month of fasting

ray

a personal opinion, the decision of legal points by ones judgement ignoring a traditional ruling in the case

rayon

region, smaller administrative area

sadr

first, front or upper part of a thing, a Sufi title

sahabah

the companions of the Prophet

salaf

the pious ancients, the main witness of early Islam

shaikh/sheikh (shaykh)

an elderly, a distinguished person

Shaitan (Shaytan)

Satan, a jinn

Shariah

Islamic jurisprudence

shirk

polytheism

shura

the council, consultative assembly

sujud

adoration, worship

sunnah

habit, norm of conduct, a normative custom of the Prophet or the early community

surah

a section of the Quran, there are 114 surahs

at-tahrir

liberation, emancipation

tariqah

path, method of instruction, a religious brotherhood that forms the organized expression of religious life in Islam

ulama

see alim

ummah

religious community, the nation of the Prophet

urf

administrative regulations on matters of penal law issued by Muslim rulers

ushr

main land-tax for Muslims

wa

and

waiz

sermons

waqf

a domain constituted into a pious endowment

zakat (pl of zaka)

obligatory alms, one of five pillars of Islam

ziyarah (pl = ziyarat)

pilgrimage

ziyarat (ziyaratgah)

shrine (mazar)

Full texts of the articles in hard copies or electronic versions are available through the placing orders in the subscription order form


 

  •      . , ,  obsession-samara.ru
  •    , PR-,  -.

UP - E-MAIL