Water Disputes in Central Asia:
The Syr Darya River Basin

BY

Gulnara Shalpykova

A thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of

MASTER OF ARTS IN
INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

at the
INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF JAPAN
2002

* The author and copyright holder on this work, Ms. Gulnara Shalpykova, hereby grants the International University of Japan the right to make single copies of this work.

* The thesis of Gulnara Shalpykova is approved by the Thesis Examining Committee.

John Welfield (Chairman)
Leszek Buszynski (Supervisor)
Daojiong Zha (Advisor)

INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF JAPAN
2002


Table of Contents

1.1 Water Politics in Post-Soviet Central Asia

1.2 Statement of the Problem

1.3 Objective and Hypothesis

1.4 Methodology

1.5 Organization of the Study

2.1 Water as a Unique Resource

2.2 Current Global Situation

2.3 The Concept of an International River Basin

2.3.1 Upstream-Downstream Relations

2.3.2 Riparian Dilemma: Theory and Practice

2.4 Concepts of International Relations on the Problem of Cooperation

2.5 Basic Principles of International River Use: Review and Evaluation

2.6 Resolution of Water Disputes: Theory and Practice

2.7 Conclusion

3.1 Central Asia: General Overview

3.2 The Syr Darya River Basin: Physical Milieu

3.3 The Main Causes of the Disputes

3.3.1 The Problem of Equitable Water Use: the Issue of Quantity

3.3.2 The Problem of Equitable Water Use: the Issue of Quality

3.4 Conclusion

4.1 Basin Polemics on Ownership Rights

4.2 Economic Damage

4.3 Environmental Impact

4.4 Conclusion

5.1 1992 Water Treaty

5.2 1996 Treaty

5.3 1997 Treaty

5.4 1998 Treaty

5.5 1999 Draft Treaty

5.6 2002 Initiatives

5.7 Conclusion

6.1 The Impact of Water Disputes on Interstate Relations

6.2 Recommendations


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